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2011/4/24 |定语从句
 
    定语从句在句中做定语,修饰名词或代词,被修饰的名词或代词即先行词。定语从句通常出现在先行词之后,由(关系代词或关系副词)引出。常见的关系代词有who,whom,that,which等;关系副词有when,where,why等。
1.关系代词所引导的定语从句
(1)who,whom,that这些词代替的先行词是人的名词或代词,在从句中做主语或宾语。
This is the comrade who wants to see you.
Who's the man(whom)you just talked to?
Who is the man that is reading the newspaper over there?
(2)Whose用来指人的或物的(只用作定语,若指物,它还可以同of which互换)
She is looking after the little child whose(of which)parents have gone London.
Please pass me the book whose(of which)cover is green.
(3)which,that所代替的先行词是事物的名词或代词,在从句中可作主语、宾语等。在从句中作宾语时,可以省略。
Is this the photo(that)you took last summer?
The computer(which)I wanted to buy was sold out.
2.关系副词引导的定语从句
   关系副词可代替的先行词是时间、地点或理由的名词,在从句中做状语。关系副词when,where,why的含义相当于“介词+which”结构,因此常常和“介词+which”结构交替使用。
I shall never forget the day when(on which)we moved into our new house.
This is the place  where(at which)Jack parks his car.
He didn't know the reason why(for which)he was dismissed.
3.限定性和非限定性定语从句
(1)定语从句有限定和非限定两种,限定从句是先行词不可缺少的部分,去掉它主句意思往往不明确;非限定定语从句是先行词的附加说明,去掉了也不会影响主句的意思,它与主句之间通常用逗号分开。
The day on which one is born is one's birthday.限定
Last night I saw a very good film,which was about a superman.非限定
(2)非限定性定语从句还能将整个主句作为先行词,对其进行修饰,从句由as或which引导,其中as可以放在主句的前面或者后面,但which只能放在主句的后面,这时从句谓语动词要用单数。
 
<阅读全文> | 评论0  发表于 13:09
2011/4/24 |名词性从句
一.名词性从句
引导名词性从句的可分为三类:
连接代词:what,whether,who,whoever,whom,whose,which
连接代词what,whatever,who,whoever,whom,which
连接副词:我很,where,how,why
1.主语从句,在句子中做主语
That he will come to the discussion is certain.
他来参加讨论是肯定无疑的.
但是为了句子美观,一般都变成it做形式的主语。
It is strange that she did not come yesterday.很奇怪,她昨天没有来.
2.表语从句 在句子中做表语,位于主句的系动词之后。结构为:主语+系动词+表语从句。
My idea is that you should make good use of your time
The question is whether we can finish our work by tomorrow evening.
表语从句还可由asif/as though,because,as引导
It looks as if it is going to snow.
It is because he doesn't know her.
Thing are not always as they seem to be.
3.同位语从句
同位语从句用来表示名词的内容,对其加以解释或说明。这些名词往往是具有一点内容含义的抽象名词.如:fact,suggestion,idea,news,answer,advice,dream等
We were very excited at the news that our Chinese athletes won many gold medals.
同位语从句通常用that引导,但随着其同位的名词不同,也可由whether,when,which,who,how,what,what,why引出
The question,whether we need it,has not yet been considered.
I have no iea when she will be back.
It is very difficult to answer your question how I did it.
4.宾语从句
宾语从句的位置与陈述句基本结构中的宾语相同。宾语从句可作谓语动词的宾语,也可以作介词和非限定动词(动词不定式、动名词、分词)和某些形容词的宾语。
I know that he is friendly and honest.
Do you know when we shall have a meeting?
He was interested in whatever he saw there.
I was surprised at what he said.
从句可作有些形容词如sure,certain,glad,sorry,afraid,confident,surprised,lucky等的宾语
I'm sure that she will come and join us.
I am not certain whether (if)the train will arrive on time.
<阅读全文> | 评论0  发表于 08:30
2011/4/23 |被动语态
 
1被动语态构成形式
    被动语态由“助动词be+过去分词”构成
(1)一般现在时:am/is/are+done过去分词
English is taught in that school.
  (2)一般过去时:was/were+done
I was given ten minutes to decide whether to go or not.
  (3)一般将来时:shall/will be+done
Hundreds of jobs will be lost if the factory closes.
  (4)现在进行时:am/is/are being done
A new cinema is being built here.
  (5)过去进行时:was/were+being done
A meeting was being held when I was there.
  (6)现在完成时:has/have been done
All the work has been finished.
  (7)过去完成时:had been done
By the end of last year,another new project had been completed in Beijing.
  (8)一般现在时带情态动词的被动语态:情态动词+be+done
His new clothes must be made very soon.
The baby should be taken good cere of by the baby-sitter.
2.主动语态变被动语态的方法
(1)把宾语移到句首作主语
(2)把谓语改成被动结构(be+过去分词)根据时态和人称来决定be的形式
(3)把主语放在by之后做宾语,将主格改为宾语
All the people laughted him.=He was laughted at by all the people.
They make bikes in the factory.=Bikes are made in the factory by them.
被动语态的用法
(1)常用被动语态的情况
①讲话者不知道动作的执行者或不必说出动作的执行者(这时可省by短语)
My bike was stolen(by????) last night.
②突出动作的承受者
I was given ten minutes to finish the work.
(2)使用被动语态时应注意的几个问题
①有些动词如:give,get,pay,buy,make,send,lend,bring,show,throw等,可以有两个宾语,在被动语态时,其直接宾语和间接宾语都可变为主语.如:
His mother gave him a present for his birthday.
A present was given to him for his birthday by his mother.
He was given a present for his birthday by his mother.
②当“动词+宾语+宾补”变为被动语态时,将宾语变为被动语态中的主语,其余不动(宾补已变成主补)
Someone caught the boy smoking a cigarette.
The boy was caught smoking a cigarette.
③在使役动词have,make,get以及感官动词see,watch,notice,hear,feel,observe等后面不定式做宾补时,在主语中不定式to省略,但变为被动结构时,要加to.
Someone saw a stranger(to省略) walk into the building.
A stranger was seen to walk into the  building.被动
④有些相当于及物动词的动词词组,如“动词+介词”,“动词+副词”等,它们是一个整体,不能分开。其中的介词或副词也不能省略。
They are to put off the meeting till Friday.
The meeting is to be put off till Friday.
⑤用被动语态表示“据说”或“相信”等词组
It is said that........  据说............
It is reported that......  据说........
It is believed that........  大家相信..........
It is hoped that..........    大家希望.......
It is well known that.......  众所周知........
(3)不用被动语态的情况
1.不及物动词无被动语态
rise,take place,place,happen,break out爆发是不及物动词词组;raise,seat是及物动词
2.系动词无被动语态
It is sounded good.错
It sounded good.
3.某些词的主动形式表示被动意义wash,clean,cook,iron,look,cut,sell,read,wear,feel
The book sells well.这本书销路好
This knife cuts easily.这刀子很好用
4.在need,require,want,worth后的动名词为主动形式,而加ed的动词,表示被动
The door needs  repairing.= The door needs to be repaired.门需要修理.
This book is worth reading.=This book is worthy to be read.这本书值得一读.
 
<阅读全文> | 评论0  发表于 17:50
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